How do you take the absent students names?
I don't. If a student finds my lectures boring or useless, they shouldn't waste their time coming to class. (As others point out, there are very good reasons to require attendance in laboratory-, studio-, and discussion-based classes.)
How do prepare your materials?
Coffee and LaTeX. Lots of coffee and LaTeX.
How do you write a syllabus for students and do you hand them out?
When I started out, I modified the syllabus from the previous iteration of the course, which was taught by an experienced instructor, so I could be sure to include all the necessary details. I used to hand out the syllabus on the first day of class, but now I just post it on the well-advertised course web site.
What computer programs do you use to plan your lessons?
I write everything in LaTeX (specifically, TeXShop) and distribute everything as PDF files on the course web site. (See the first question.) I also use SubEthaEdit to edit the course web pages themselves.