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Students diagnosed with dyslexia qualify for accommodations at most universities. As with other special needs students, they're entitled extra time for work, exams, access or licenses to spell checkers, etc.

If these accommodations are in place, and assuming good grammar/spelling is part of the evaluation of work outlined in the university course syllabus, is it reasonable for an instructor to penalize students with dyslexia for making spelling/grammar mistakes as with other students?

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great question! Presumably, use of accommodations - or even spellcheck - should be expected; but give them a break on typos that elude spellcheck (eg technical terms). My approach is to focus on what will help the student learn and do better next time. Some disabilities can't be fixed. I also honk is is okay to be more lenien on ESL students - but I am not lenient when ESL authors submit a paper with imprecise or unclear statements; unlike class work, the author of an article should have the work revised by a competent editor or colleague. – Abe Oct 26 '12 at 3:05
Which particular aspects of this are you most interested in? For example, the legal requirements? Common university policies? Consensus on what to do when there isn't a set policy? The fundamental question is whether the accommodations are intended to allow dyslexic students to complete the work to the same standard expected from other students, or whether they are just partial progress in this direction. I'd say they more often function as the latter in practice, but I'll let more knowledgeable people submit official answers. – Anonymous Mathematician Oct 26 '12 at 3:18
As both of the answers below state, I think the key factor is to have the claim established in advance of the grading event, and to decide on the "corrective measures" cooperatively with the requisite parties (student, medical staff, administration, and so on). At the same time, the grading standard should be kept as uniform as possible otherwise. If they get, say, an extra hour to work on the exam, then they should be held to the same passing mark as other students—unless otherwise negotiated. (But this would be one area where I would not want to negotiate!) – aeismail Oct 26 '12 at 16:41
Are we sure that dyslexia is related to spelling errors? I personally know someone that's dyslexic. He has trouble reading and has illegible hand writing but his e-mails have perfect grammar and spelling. – Jase Dec 14 '12 at 10:52
@Jase The official term used at my school in "dysorthographia" – Fuhrmanator Dec 15 '12 at 2:33
up vote 13 down vote accepted

I’ll go for a legal answer, at least valid in my current place of employment (France): dyslexia, which must be medically characterized as a learning disability for an individual, is covered by the laws regarding disabilities. As such, students impacted can request that exam conditions be modified for their benefit: most commonly by giving them additional time to “compensate” for their disability, but it could also include changes in setup (such as having access to a dictionary, spellchecker, or even a secretary). On the other hand, no leniency should then be granted on judging the exam paper.

The operating principle in all cases should be that of equal opportunity. (See here a summary of jurisprudence by the Association lyonnaise de droit administratif.)

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I don't understand: "if it is medically characterized as a learning disability". Is dyslexia considered a learning disability in France? Must it be medically characterized (requires a medical professional to characterize it for an individual)? A web site on debunking myths about dyslexia says it's not a medical diagnosis. – Fuhrmanator Oct 30 '12 at 15:01
@Fuhrmanator I’d rather believe a more official source than your link :) I must add that I have no first-hand experience with dyslexia, but combined in my answer a second-hand experience and some research into the legal framework: dyslexia, as recognized by a medical expert, is considered a disability in France – F'x Oct 30 '12 at 15:06
Agreed it's a more official source, but it doesn't answer my questions RE: France. I like your answer's structure, but I don't understand the conditions the way you've written them. Is it considered a medically diagnosed disability in France? – Fuhrmanator Oct 30 '12 at 15:11
@Fuhrmanator yes, that what the source I linked to says (quick translation) “[Dyslexia] was recognized as a disability, giving right to modifications of exam conditions.” The text it is based on is an administrative directive frmo the Education ministry, dated August 30 1985. – F'x Oct 30 '12 at 15:21
+1 for the legal answer. I'll also point out that France includes dysorthographie (a condition that affects the ability to acquire spelling skills) along with its ruling. The US NIH reference doesn't mention spelling at all. – Fuhrmanator Oct 30 '12 at 15:35

it is in my university (UK).

Dyslexic students are given a lot of attention and information around their case, extra time, specific conditions to undertake exams/courseworks/assignments. These include more time to complete the work, using a computer to transcribe their ideas/concepts, personal assistants and so on.

After this extra care and information, the idea is to create a plain field with non-dyslexic students, and use the same framework for marking or assessing the piece of work. So advantages in the pre-conditions of an exam, but then the marker will not use any bias in the marking. This includes also a stricter handling of extenuating circumstances: you cannot claim that "you have dyslexia" if you could not complete your work, or if it's incomplete, or has mistakes in it

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